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The major gold and diamond mining houses all have their headquarters in Johannesburg, the biggest being Anglo American and De Beers.
There are 159 mines - 44 of them gold mines - in Gauteng that together produce a quarter of South Africa's total mineral production. Most of the mining is for gold - 80% of Gauteng's output.
Although gold mining and ancillary industries provide thousands of jobs, mining is increasingly less important to the city than the manufacturing and financial sectors. Mining produces only 6% of Gauteng's total income and 31% of export earnings.